aztec slavery by the spanish
, Another form of forced labor used in the New World with origins in Spain was the encomienda, on the model of the award of the labor to Christian victors over Muslims during the reconquista. In the treaty of September 23, 1817, with Great Britain, the Spanish Crown said that "having never lost sight of a matter so interesting to him and being desirous of hastening the moment of its attainment, he has determined to co-operate with His Britannic Majesty in adopting the cause of humanity." The first open black rebellion occurred in Spanish plantations in 1521. All Rights Reserved. However, it was such a widely held practice that the Mexica would often sell their children into slavery. For example, Moctezuma II, in addition to confiscating property, would condemn traitors, or their families, to slavery for life. In its American territories, it initially bound indigenous people and later slaves of African origin.  After 1763, the scale and urgency of defense projects led the state to deploy many of its enslaved workers in ways that were to anticipate the intense work regimes on sugar plantations in the nineteenth century. " When British government officials pressured the Native Americans to return the fugitive slaves, they replied that they had "merely given hungry people food, and invited the slaveholders to catch the runaways themselves. For several days, the Spaniards vainly used Moctezuma in an attempt to calm tempers, but his people pelted the puppet king with stones. Guns, germs, and horses brought CortÃ©s victory over the mighty Aztec empire. CorteÌs once described the land near Veracruz, the city he founded on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, as rich as the mythical land where King Solomon obtained his gold. Cuba ultimately developed two distinct but interrelated sources using enslaved labor, which converged at the end of the eighteenth century. But that's not actually when slavery in America started", "The journey of Africans to St. Augustine, Florida and the establishment of the underground railway", "St. Augustine's Fort Mose added to UNESCO Slave Route Project", "The Ideology of Racial Hierarchy and the Construction of the European Slave Trade", "From African to Creole: Atlantic Creoles and the Origins of African- American Society in Mainland North America", "Finding Freedom in Florida: Native Peoples, African Americans, and Colonists, 1670-1816", Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slavery_in_colonial_Spanish_America&oldid=985354288, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2012, Articles with disputed statements from July 2018, Articles needing additional references from May 2015, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Davidson, David M. "Negro Slave Control and Resistance in Colonial Mexico, 1519-1650.". CorteÌs had a talent for observing and manipulating local political rivalries. [dubious – discuss] In 1771, Governor John Moultrie wrote to the English Board of Trade, "It has been a practice for a good while past, for negroes to run away from their Masters, and get into the Indian towns, from whence it proved very difficult to get them back. Aztec slavery, within the structure of the Mexico society, produced many slaves, known by the Nahuatl word, tlacotin. In south America Simon Bolivar abolished slavery in the lands that he conquered. Black slave populations were extremely low on Cuba and Puerto Rico until the 1760s, when the British took Havana, Cuba, in 1762. Slavery also existed among Native Americans of both Meso-America and South America.
It was replaced by the repartimiento system.. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution which existed throughout the Spanish Empire.  Anyone could be a slave, though commoners were more likely to enter slavery voluntarily. The mixed-race men often grew up bilingual, making them useful as interpreters in African and Iberian ports..
Under the leadership of Hernan Cortes in 1521, the Aztec Empire was destroyed. Following its rediscovery, the sun stone was mounted on an exterior wall of the Cathedral, where it remained until 1885. These were buttressed by prior ideologies of differentiation as that of the limpieza de sangre (en: purity of blood), which in Spain referred to individuals without the perceived taint of Jewish or Muslim ancestry. Reading these accounts hundreds of years later, many historians dismissed the 16th-century reports as wildly exaggerated propaganda meant to justify the murder of Aztec emperor Moctezuma, the ruthless destruction of Tenochtitlán and the enslavement of its people. The exact origins of the Aztec people are uncertain, but they are believed to have begun as a northern tribe of hunter-gatherers whose name came from their homeland Aztlan, or “White Land” in the Aztec language of Nahuatl. Slaves could be used for any sort of work, however In practice most slaves often found themselves as servants in the palaces of lords. This trade helped transfer American wealth to Europe and promoted racial hierarchies (castas) throughout the empire.  In that respect, the system was not slavery, but contractual indentured servitude, resulting in "unfree" labor.  For example, slaves were selected to be ixiptla, which is a representation of a god. The Spanish had control over the distribution of cacao beans in the economy. However, it was such a widely held practice that the Mexica would often sell their children into slavery. ), Having rapidly imposed control over the indigenous population in the coastal region, CorteÌs was given 20 slaves by a local chieftain. An Atztec human sacrifice atop the Mesoamerican temple pyramid.  They could also be sacrificed at a religious ceremony or festival. By the late 15th century, the Aztecs had won control over large swaths of central and southern Mexico. Cortes and some 400 soldiers then marched into Mexico, aided by a native woman known as Malinche, who served as a translator. , Aztec society consisted of strict social class structure and every individual had their place in society, yet your social class was not set in stone there was room for maneuvering.  In retaliation the proscription against enslaving Indians captured in war was lifted by Philip in 1608.  To complicate matters further, Spain's haphazard grip on its extensive American dominions and its erratic economy acted to impede the broad and systematic spread of plantations similar to those of the French in Saint Domingue or of the British in Jamaica. No longer did they seek to overthrow the whites and re-establish carbon-copy African societies as they had done during the earlier rebellions; the vast majority of slaves were creole, native born where they lived, and envisaged their freedom within the established framework of the existing society. While it's true that the Spanish undoubtedly inflated their figures—Spanish historian Fray Diego de Durán reported that 80,400 men, women and children were sacrificed for the inauguration of the Templo Mayor under a previous Aztec emperor—evidence is mounting that the gruesome scenes illustrated in Spanish texts, and preserved in temple murals and stone carvings, are true. It is also a festival in the Aztec religion dedicated to Toci and Tlazolteotl and is also the month of cleaning or sweeping away.
, Spanish colonist turned Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas (1484–1566) observed and recorded the effects of enslavement on the Native populations. What distinguished Maya and Aztec human sacrifice was the way in which it was embedded in everyday life and believed to be a necessity. The Aztecs were also known as the Tenochca (from which the name for their capital city, Tenochtitlan, was derived) or the Mexica (the origin of the name of the city that would replace Tenochtitlan, as well as the name for the entire country).
The book Tenochtitlan: Capital of the Aztec Empire by José Luis de Rojas also mentions that citizens would buy slaves that held similar occupations as themselves for sacrifice.
Fuente, Alejandro de la.  Resistance to Amerindian captivity in the Spanish colonies produced the first modern debates over race and the legitimacy of slavery. Slavery was common and an important institution in Aztecs culture. Adams negotiated very favorable terms.. Seeing the value of the emperor as a captive, CorteÌs seized him and guaranteed his power over the city. The Aztec calendar, common in much of Mesoamerica, was based on a solar cycle of 365 days and a ritual cycle of 260 days; the calendar played a central role in the religion and rituals of Aztec society. The people had to make sacrifices to him to protect the Aztec from infinite night.
The keep the sun moving across the sky and preserve their very lives, the Aztecs had to feed Huitzilopochtli with human hearts and blood.
José Luis de Rojas the author of Tenochtitlan: Capital of the Aztec Empire states that one of the most respected positions an Aztec commoner could obtain was the role of “Tealtiani" or the person responsible for the cleansing of slaves before sacrifice. Tenoch's father was Iztac Mixcoatl, who had a total of seven sons with two wives. Although it did not directly partake in the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, black slaves were sold throughout the Spanish Empire, particularly in Caribbean territories. The Aztec social classes grew incredibly sophisticated and complex once the Mexica people settled and began to build their empire. Initially, forced labor represented a means by which the conquistadores mobilized native labor, with disastrous effects on the population. In 1428, under their leader Itzcoatl, the Aztecs formed a three-way alliance with the Texcocans and the Tacubans to defeat their most powerful rivals for influence in the region, the Tepanec, and conquer their capital of Azcapotzalco. Bustling markets such as Tenochtitlan’s Tlatelolco, visited by some 50,000 people on major market days, drove the Aztec economy. [ 16 ] This interbreeding created a hierarchal society based upon race, with the Spanish whites, or ‘criolles’ on top. During fighting in July 1521, the Aztec held strong, even capturing CorteÌs himself. Some famous black Spanish soldiers in the first stages of the Spanish conquest of America were Juan Valiente and Juan Beltrán in Chile, Juan Garrido (credited with the first harvesting of wheat planted in New Spain) and Sebastián Toral in Mexico, Juan Bardales in Honduras and Panama, and Juan García [es] in Peru. Spain and Great Britain made a contract in 1713 by which the British would provide the slaves. Aztec warfare concerns the aspects associated with the militaristic conventions, forces, weaponry and strategic expansions conducted by the Late Postclassic Aztec civilizations of Mesoamerica, including particularly the military history of the Aztec Triple Alliance involving the city-states of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, Tlacopan and other allied polities of the central Mexican region. There were only two ways you could become a slave. ", As the Spanish (Castilians) and Portuguese expanded overseas, they conquered and occupied Atlantic islands off the north coast of Africa, including the Canary Islands as well as São Tomé and Madeira where they introduced plantation sugar cultivation.
The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Conquest of Mexico (1519–21), was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Aztec warriors besiege Spaniards, uned the command of Alvarado, who are holing up in Moctezuma's palace in this engraving from the 16th century. On the way to Tenochtitlan, the Spaniards gained the support of the Totonac peoples from the city of Cempoala, who hoped to be freed from the Aztec yoke.
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